Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm that occurs in the cervical region. According to the WHO, about 500,000 cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed worldwide every year. In the Republic of Kazakhstan, annually, cervical cancer is first detected in about 1800 women. In the structure of cancer incidence among women, both in the world and in the Republic of Kazakhstan, cervical cancer takes the 2nd place.
Causes of the disease and risk factors:
Currently, it is considered a proven link between the incidence of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and the risk of developing cervical cancer.
The risk group for dysplasia and cervical cancer includes women who have:
- Early onset of sexual activity;
- Early first pregnancy;
- Frequent change of sexual partners;
- The presence of papillomavirus or herpes infection in a woman, or her sexual partner;
- History of frequent abortions;
- Untimely treatment of cervical pathology (erosion, dysplasia, leukoplakia, polyps);
- Weighed down heredity;
- Immunodeficiency states.
Cervical cancer belongs to tumors that are asymptomatic for a long time. The appearance of clinical symptoms indicates an already developed tumor, in which women most often complain about:
- Bloody discharge from the genital tract, not associated
- menstruation, can be slight, smearing, or profuse, in rare cases, bleeding is observed. Often, spotting occurs after sexual intercourse - "contact discharge".
- Pain in the lower abdomen: may accompany bloody
- discharge, or occur with advanced forms of cancer as a result of the addition of an infection or germination of a tumor of other pelvic
- organs or structures (nerve plexuses, pelvic walls).
- Swelling of the extremities, external genital organs occurs when
- the progression of the disease in advanced and advanced cases.
- Dysfunction of the intestines and bladder. Retention of urine due to mechanical compression
- metastatic lymph nodes of the ureters with subsequent shutdown of the kidney from work.
Methods for diagnosing cervical cancer:
Diagnosis of cervical cancer is based on the identification of characteristic symptoms, the results of general and gynecological examinations. The main role in the diagnosis of cervical cancer is assigned to special research methods:
- Screening - taking a smear for cytological examination.
- Taking tissue for histological examination (biopsy).
- Colposcopy - examination of the cervix using an optical device (with a magnification of 7-28 times or more).
Doctor's recommendations for the prevention of cervical cancer:
Recommendations for reducing the risk of cancer in general and cervical cancer are prevention. Prevention of cervical cancer is divided into primary and secondary.
Primary prevention consists of eliminating risk factors:
- Prevention of early sexual activity, early marriages;
- Exclusion of frequent change of sexual partners;
- Use of personal protective equipment during sexual intercourse to prevent sexually transmitted infections (condom);
- HPV vaccination. After vaccination, women of different age groups develop stable immunity and remain the entire observation period.
- Preventive medical examinations with a cytological examination of a smear in women over 20 years of age (smear for oncocytology) in examination rooms of a primary health care institution, once a year.
- For early detection of cervical cancer, every woman should be screened (women between 30 and 70 years old, every 4 years) at the clinic at the site of attachment.
If you become concerned about the previously listed symptoms, then immediately contact the doctor at the place of attachment for screening for colorectal cancer.
At the NSC, you can get a qualified consultation of a gynecological oncologist, go through the whole range of diagnostics and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive system. To make an appointment and consultation with a doctor, you can contact the women's health center or call the Call Center number 8 (7172) 702-911.